November 30

Logistics Business Systematic Transportation Goods

Logistics Business Systematic Transportation Goods

Logistics is, in business, is the systematic transportation of goods and occasionally, even individuals. The term initially associated with the military but was later became a business term. Logistics indicates that a range of distinct operations are co-ordinate. In the year 1991, the Council of Logistics Management, which is a trade group located within the United States.

Identified logistics as the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements. The last two words restrict the definition to businesses. When making decisions regarding the movement of materials, logistics can also be view as transportation.

Companies with large amounts of merchandise to transport like appliance manufacturers usually use business logistics. Services also face logistical problems, however. Banks that have automated teller machines required to maintain a supply of money as well as paper forms and have to collect deposits. Television networks use a variety of vehicles that help to collect news.

During an event that is major in sports broadcasters might have more than a dozen vehicles on display. Non-profit and government organizations also have programs for logistics. The most difficult logistics tasks have been connecting with the buildup of military forces. The conflict with Iraq and the United Nations and Iraq during 1990-91 as well as the relief efforts for famine in Ethiopia as well as other African nations in the 1980s.

Business Logistics

Different functions or activities, that all fall under the business’s logistical umbrella, include customer service, forecasting demand document flow, interplant movement, inventory management as well as packaging, order processing, support for parts and services as well as warehouse and plant site selection, production schedule and purchasing, returning products, salvage scrap disposal, traffic management and administration of distribution centers and warehouses.

All of these activities need to be plan and carried out in conjunction with one another. The logistics manager might be able to pay more for one component of service to save a larger amount on another element. For example, airfreight is a costly form of transportation. Helps save in packaging costs because air freight companies are more cautious with cargo than their rivals. Additionally, since the cargo are delivery faster and the payment for them will be faster receive.

Customer Service

Customer service encompasses a range of actions to keep current customers happy. One example is software makers who permit customers to contact them via phone to discuss issues they are having with their software. Repairing equipment in the field and teaching new users are also ways to provide customer services.

The term user-friendly can used to describe a company’s desire to build a reputation of being easy to conduct business with. Firms constantly assess the level of customer service they and offer their rivals. They could use equipment to track how often customers’ service phones ring before they are answer or how many require repair parts they will provide within a specific period of time.

Forecasting Demand

This process is conduct in in conjunction with the company’s marketing team and used to gain a better understanding of the logistical requirements of the upcoming plan period. These requirements include delivery to customers as well as receiving raw materials or parts to be assemble. Since the logistics department is in charge of processing orders and processing, they also have early data on what customers actually want to order. This information is crucial for other employees who plan and schedule production.

Documentation Flow

The paperwork that goes along with the movement of physical goods is regard as the flow of documentation. The Bill of Lading represents the legal contract that is sign between shipper and the carrier. The packing lists are insert inside each carton of items from the one who is packing it. On receipt the consignee confirms the amount of freight on the waybill of the carrier and the entries on the packing list in each box. International shipping requires a variety of documents. The usual range of documents is six to 10, however, the amount can reach over 50.

For instance, livestock needs to have a veterinarian’s certificate of inspection. Documentation also ties the delivery to the payment of the product. Which a way of controlling requires to ensure that products shipped in a manner that unrelated to the fact that they payment. Electronic data exchange frequently employed in lieu of paper in the process of documenting.

Interplant Movements

When producing, the company moves its products between its different manufacturing facilities. A major automobile manufacturer could have thousands of suppliers that are feeding components into factories which assemble the components to be utilize by.

For instance, twenty assembly lines. The flow must managed and adjust to meet evolving needs. They must be control and adjust to accommodate changing requirements. Just-in-Time replenishment of inventory system demands smaller, precise resupply delivery to complete as they required, and not later. Furthermore, the parts must be in perfect condition since there isn’t an inventory of spare parts to select for replacement.


A grain elevator may receive local farmers’ grain in the amount of three or two truckloads per day during harvest time and then hold the grain until it’s transport out in the form of several railcars per week for a period of six months. The inventories represent an investment the owner plans to sell. Sometimes they’re the idea of an involuntary investment that occurs when the goods are made more quickly than they are sold.

There are some costs that come with keeping inventory. But these include the interest charged on the money that is put into an inventory as well as storage costs and the risk of deterioration, obsolescence and shrinkage. The dealer who has the cars of this year is able to lose inventory value when the models for next year are release. Since the vehicles on the shelves are one year old in the eyes of buyers. The term inventory shrinkage is the term that recognizes and evaluates the fact that the majority of inventory records indicate that more items are in inventory than are available.

Processing Orders

Processing of orders starts with acceptance of an order by the customer. It can be receive through a salesperson, called in, or delivered via mail. Buyers and sellers who are regular are usually connect electronically.

When the inventories of buyers get low and the buyer’s inventory is reduced, an electronic purchase request is made. The first step of most order processing methods is to check the authenticity of the purchase. Which is to ensure that the order does not contain any internal mistakes that could indicate that the buyer was not sure what they were purchasing.

Following that, it is time to confirm the credit of the customer or their capability to pay. Once you have determined the inventory location to ship the items and then sending instructions to the warehouse that will fill the order. In the warehouse, the order picking list is hand to a worker in the warehouse, who will put together the order. In the packing zone the item is inspect and put in a container for shipping and then the package is mark.

The traffic manager creates the transport documents and informs an agent to collect the package. An invoice for the merchandise is sent to the purchaser along with other financial and inventory records are kept up to date. The shipper utilizes the word order cycle to indicate the time period between the time of receiving and sending the order. The buyer makes use of the term to refer to the length of time between placing an order and taking delivery of the package.


There are two purposes served by packaging it promotes the product as well as protecting the product. The purpose of the promotional efforts is to make the item stand out on the store shelf and to say take me home to customers who are walking through the aisle. The purpose of protection is to shield the product from damage and sometimes it’s to protect the product from causing damage to surrounding objects.

The packaging of retail packages for food and pharmaceuticals must be impervious to tampering to the point that consumers can tell whether the product has been altered. The selection in the packaging material is also influence considerations regarding the environment. Containers that are recyclable or made from recycled materials are seeing increasing demand. Numerous state and local laws encourage recycling of drink containers.

Parts And Support For Logistics Service

Anything that is sold has to be maintained. For instance, automakers regularly offer parts for all automobile models that are up to 10 years old. The purchasers of capital equipment want to know that the purchase will remain in good working order for many years. The prompt delivery of spare parts is also essential. Farmers and machinery manufacturers sometimes charter small planes in order to bring require parts to combine that have been broke in fields of wheat.

The Plant As Well As Storage Site Choice Logistics

Firms are often require to locate the best location for their new location. The decision is usually based on the process of analysis and design. A decision is made on the number of facilities that the company is require to operate. A company that has to supply repair parts at night within the country might be able to access all markets by air from one warehouse.

If the company was willing to utilize air-express services. If the company wanted to utilize trucks for delivery of goods from warehouses to the markets mentioned above, then it will likely need to scatter several warehouses across the nation. A growing company might decide to build the addition of a warehouse to serve an area.

Production Scheduling Logistics

The scheduling of production is perform by other employees of the company however with the assistance of the logistical personnel. Plant capacity and raw material availability are take into account when planning production. Materials and components that are coming in need to be plan to be incorporate into manufacturing processes.

The manufacturing process can be planning to complete the existing orders and to plan for future ones. Products manufacture must be scheduled to ship to retailers, wholesalers, and to customers. If the company is running special advertisement campaign to advertise its products, then additional products are required purchasing. The logistics team advises on to the cost of transporting products.


The other aspect closely relate to scheduling production is the purchase of materials, as a lot of the equipment require to make production work must be bought from outside suppliers. The logistics team provides advice as to the logistics services that need to be employed to ensure the items purchase are deliver on time. If the vendor takes responsibility to deliver inputs, the buyer’s logistic staff will monitor the delivery carrier’s performance. The logistics team may try to group the transportation of inputs to cut down on the overall cost of transportation.

Returned Items

There are a variety of categories of returned items. Some are subject to recalls on products, which indicates that a safety issue or risk was discover. The products are taken off the shelves and retailers and customers attempt to return the product back to their manufacturer. This is a type of reverse distribution. It involves items being move towards the reverse from their normal flow.

At some point, the manufacturer will have to fix the issue, or offer an alternative product or refund the money. You can also return products that have been in the store for too long and are no longer fresh. The pull date code on food items in the United States indicates that the item should not be sold after the date.

Salvage Scrap Disposal

The waste products of a company must be properly control. The company attempts to make a profit from them and adhere to environmentally sustainable methods. The main ingredient in the success of many recycling efforts is having the waste and scrap materials correctly sort to ensure that they are offer to different processors that specialize in the recycling of glass, plastics and other metals. The public is increasingly concerned about every company’s environmental scoreboard, and more and more attention are required to ensure that environmental considerations are consider when it comes to scrap disposal.

Management Of Traffic

Managed traffic is the process of planning, organizing, and purchasing transport services. It’s the most crucial element that is part of logistical. A traffic supervisor is in charge of the consolidation of freight, carrier rates and charges, selection of carrier’s documentation, tracing, and processing damages and loss claims, reconsignment and diversion of demurrage and detention transport of hazardous substances, and private carriage. Freight consolidation is the process of assembling of a number of smaller shipments into an enlarge number of larger transports.

The logistics process involves the management of the places where the firm’s inventories kept. Distribution centers and warehouses are similar, however they differ in focus. Warehouses are use to store products. For instance, canned foods can canned in one month towards the end of the time of growing and then transported out in an uniform flow throughout the following 11 months.

People Moving Logistics

The logistics involved in moving people can dealt with through two different ways. Individuals may give directions to gather at specific location, near or far away. They will then be responsible for their own arrangements for travel and turning at the time specified. The company could arrange for accommodation and charter an airplane or bus for large groups of people.

International Logistics

The debate until this moment has concentrated on local logistics, i.e., that operate within the borders of a nation. International logistics involves movement across borders. These operations are regard as more complicated because of a number of reasons.

The first is that there can be problems at border. The goods must examined and, in most cases, import taxes, or charges determined. Health and pollution, labeling, and safety inspections could be conduct at the border. Many countries around the globe, although not the United States, insist that they use metric measurements.

Service Industry Logistics

While they aren’t able to transport large quantities of products the service industry has logistical requirements for their particular needs. Postal services or small parcel delivery services fulfill their transport needs. Banks need to process checks swiftly and then deliver the cashed checks to the bank that issued them promptly.

Management And Coordination Of Logistics

The different components of a company’s logistics system have to connected. The company’s management might have a separate department in charge of logistics which is in the same category with other departments that are important such as production, finance marketing and so on. But most companies tend to distribute these tasks between various departments that are not manage by a staff of logistics.

November 30

Automation Development Applying Tasks Mechanization Commonly

Automation Development Applying Tasks Mechanization Commonly

In recent times, automation development has been applying to tasks that would otherwise be impossible. While it is true that the word mechanization commonly used to describe the simple substitution of human labor for machines, the term automation typically refers to the incorporation of machines into self-governing systems. Automation has changed the world that it has implement, and no part of modern society has untouched by it.

In 1946, the automotive industry coined the term automation to describe automated production lines and equipment. The term’s beginning believed to be due to D.S. Harder, who was an engineer director at Ford Motor Company in the early days of. However, it is also use outside of manufacturing, in connection with other technologies. These include various other technologies that involve an almost complete replacement of electrical, mechanical or computerized actions in favor of human efforts and the ability to think.

It can defined as a technology that can automate the process by using control commands that are program. This is couple with automatic feedback to ensure that the directives are execute correctly. The resultant system can operate without the intervention of humans. The advancement of this technology is more dependent on the use of computers and related technologies.

This article will cover the basics of automation, such as its history, the concepts and theories of operation, the applications it has for manufacturing and certain industries and services essential to our daily lives, and the impacts on individuals and society at large. The article also examines the evolution and the technology behind robotics as an important area of automation. For more related topics, check out the computer sciences as well as data processing.

The Development Of Automation In The Past

The automation technology is a result of the area that is mechanization which saw its origins in the Industrial Revolution. Mechanization refers to the substitution that humans or animal power by mechanical power in any shape or form. The primary driver behind mechanization is humankind’s tendency to design machines as well as machines. Here are a few of the key technological advancements in mechanization and automation that led to advanced automated technology.

Early Stages Of Developments

In the beginning, men made instruments from stone to manage their physical strength with the help of their intellect. Basic mechanical devices such as wheels, levers, and pulleys created over thousands of years. These devices and machines enhanced the power of human muscles. Electric machines powered by electricity did not require human strength to operate. Examples of these machines are windmills and waterwheels as well as simple steam-driven machines. Around 2,000 years ago the Chinese invented trip-hammers that powered by flowing water as well as waterwheels.

The first Greeks tried out simple reaction motors that powered through steam. A mechanical clock represents a complicated assembly that has an internal generator a weight invented around 1335, in Europe. Windmills with mechanisms to turn the sails automatically invented in Europe and the Middle East in the Middle Ages.

It was the steam engine was a significant step in the evolution of powered machines. It also was the catalyst for the start of the Industrial Revolution. In the two centuries following the invention of the Watt steam engine, powered engines as well as machinery created. These engines and machinery get their power from electricity, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear energy sources.

Another significant development in the development of automate technology is the Jacquard weaving machine see image which proved the idea of a machine that could be program. Around 1801, in the year 1801 French creator Joseph-Marie Jacquard created an automatic loom that could produce intricate patterns on textiles by controlling the movements of several shuttles with different colored threads.

In steel cards where holes punched, a computer program selected patterns. The cards are the predecessors of the cards made from paper and tapes used to control modern automated machines. The idea of programming machines was further refined during the late 19th century.

Modern Developments

Numerous significant advances in various fields have taken place in the 20th century. These include the development of the digital computer advancements in data storage technologies and software for writing computer programs. In addition, the advancement of technology for sensors, as well as the development of mathematical control theory. These developments have all led to the development of automation technology.

Since the development of the ENIAC electronic numerical integrator and computer in 1946, and the UNIVAC universal automatic computer at the time of its release in, the control system for automation has become significantly more sophisticated and the calculations associated with it are performed at a faster rate.

The advent of integrated circuits in the 1960s sparked an era of miniaturization in computer technology. This has led to computers that are smaller and less costly than their predecessors but are capable of processing calculations at much higher speeds. This trend is illustration in the present by the microprocessor. This is a tiny device that is that can perform all the math and logic functions of a huge electronic computing device.

AI is a specialized area in the field of computer science that is where computers are designed to display characteristics related to the human brain. This includes the ability to learn the language, understanding, reasoning and solving problems, making experts diagnoses and similar cognitive abilities. Advancements in artificial intelligence are expect to equip robots as well as other intelligent machines with the ability to communicate with human beings and accept precise instructions instead of the precise step-by-step programming instructions commonly found in modern programmable devices.

November 30

Industrial Robotics Technology Automation Attracted Lot Attention

Industrial Robotics Technology Automation Attracted Lot Attention

Industrial robotics is a technology for automation which has attracted a lot of attention from 1960 onwards. This article will examine the advancement of industrial robotics, designing the robot’s manipulator, as well as methods to program robots. The uses of robots described below under the heading manufacturing applications of automation along with robotics.

Robotics Development

Robotics is based upon two similar technologies numerical control and Teleoperators. NC is a method of controlling axes of machines with numbers encoded on punched paper. It created in the latter half of 1940 and into the early 1950s. The first machine tool that control numerically shown by 1952 United States at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT. Further research at MIT resulted in the creation of APT Automatically Programmed Tools language to program tools for machine tools.

A Teleoperator is a machine that can be control by a human at a distant location. Initial research in the field of designing teleoperators may be trace back to dealing with radioactive materials in the 1940s. In some cases, a human moves mechanically while in others, an operator replicates the movement.

The concept of industrial robotics is an amalgamation of numerical-control and teleoperator technology. Teleoperation adds the concept of a metal arm to a machine that can be program. A first commercial robotic arm built in the year 1961 to remove parts from the die-casting process. The development of the robot was due in large part thanks to Americans George C.

Devol who was an inventor, as well as Joseph F. Engelberger, an entrepreneur. Devol invented the concept for a programmable device which the subject of a U.S. patent which granted in the year 1961. Engelberger worked with Devol to encourage the application of robotics within industries and to create the first company in robotics, Unimation, Inc.

The Robot’s Manipulator

The science of robotics is focus on the development of the mechanical manipulator as well as the computer systems utilized to manage it. It also focuses on their industrial application which explained below. The mechanical device in an industrial robotic comprised of a series of link and Joint combinations. Links are the rigid parts that join the joints.

The joints also known as Axes are the moving components of the robot which cause an interplay between adjacent links. As can seen in Figure, there three types of mechanical joints that used for the construction of the manipulator. Three joints are rotary joints, meaning that the relative motion between the links is based on rotation of the links. Two joints are linear and two are rotary.

The manipulator divided into two parts 1 an arm-and-body consisting of three joints joined via links of a large size and 2 the wrist made up of three or two compact joints. On the wrist the gripper that used to hold an item of work or a device e.g., for instance, the spot-welding gun to carry out a task. The arm and body used to move and position tools and parts within the robot’s workspace.

They also used to position the parts to the location of work. The arm-and body section of many commercial robots is based on the four designs. Every anatomy has a distinct work envelope that is accessible through the arm of the robot and suitable for different kinds of applications.

Robot Programming

A system that controls the computer device that is controlling the operator has to be program to instruct the robot in the specific motion sequence. This is in addition to the other actions that need to be carry out in order to fulfill its mission. There are a variety of ways industrial robots can be program. One approach known as lead-through programming.

It requires that the robot be control through the different movements require to complete the task at hand, and then record the movements into the robot’s memory. This could accomplish using physical movement of the device throughout the sequence or using a control box to guide the robot through the sequence

A different method of programming makes use of a language for programming that is similar to the program for computers. However, aside from certain capabilities of the computer programming language i.e., data processing computations, communication with other devices on the computer and making decisions, the robot language is also a language specifically create for the control of robots.

These capabilities comprise 1 motion-control as well as 2 input and output. Motion-control commands instruct the robot to move its manipulator towards a specified location in space. For instance, the phrase move P1 might be utilize to direct the robot towards the location of P1.

Input and output commands are used to regulate the reception of data receive from sensors and other devices within the cell. In addition, they are used to trigger control signals to other parts of equipment inside the cell. For example, the phrase signal 3, on can be used to activate an electric motor within the cell. That motor connects to the output line 3 of your robot’s control.